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Normally the sequence for a jet engine is compress air, inject fuel, ignite fuel, then pull some energy out of the expanding mixture (with turbines) and throwing the rest out the back as thrust. An afterburner throws more fuel into the exhaust after it goes through the turbine stage, making the gas even hotter and expanding even faster (expanding gases are easy to funnel into going very, very fast, meaning more thrust). But it’s a much less efficient use of the fuel, so it’s rarely used for average flight.
edit:changed “really” to “rarely”